Category Archives: Energy

Regulation of the Power Sector – Ignacio Pérez-Arriaga (ed.)

Grids limit the operation of the electricity system in many ways. The most typical limitation is congestion, which occurs when the maximum current that can be handled by a line or other facility is reached, thus determining the amount of electric power that can flow through the element in question. The underlying cause for the limitation may be thermal, and therefore dependent upon the physical characteristics of the facility. It may also be related to the characteristics of system operation as a whole; for instance, provisions to guarantee security in the system’s dynamic response to disturbances or to stability-related problems that usually increase with line length.

Another typical grid constraint is the need to maintain voltages within certain limits at all nodes, which may call for connecting generating units near the node experiencing problems. The maximum allowable short-circuit power established may also limit grid configuration. Generally speaking,
the main effect of grid constraints is to condition system operation and in so doing to cause deviations from economically optimum operation. The most common constraints in distribution grids are related to voltage and maximum line capacity.

“Regulation of the Power Sector” is a comprehensive technical book on the electricity sector, aimed at specialists and advanced students. It encompasses several scholarly fields, including law, economics, regulation, physics and political science.

It is divided into 14 chapters, as follows: I. Technology and Operation of Electric Power Systems; II. Power System Economics; III. Electricity Regulation: Principles and Institutions; IV. Monopoly Regulation; V. Electricity Distribution; VI. Electricity Transmission; VII. Electricity Generation and Wholesale Markets; VIII. Electricity Tariffs; IX. Electricity Retailing; X. Regional Markets; XI. Environmental Regulation; XII. Security of Generation Supply in Electricity Markets; XIII. Electricity and Gas; XIV. Challenges in Power Sector Regulation.

The first electromagnetic generator, invented by Michael Faraday in 1831.

The authors cover pretty much everything in terms of background in energy regulation, with a focus, but not exclusive, to European regulation and market design. The book reads as a manual and goes into detail in explaining why some regulatory decisions were taken. However, it does not push a message or contributes to the scholarly debate, it is more a stocktaking exercise.

The book makes the basis for the Regulation of the Power Sector course at the Florence School of Regulation, a 6-months intensive training for professionals in the area.

The authors are mostly academics and former regulators with plenty of practical examples. What is impressive is that they managed to have a very balanced approach in a highly divisive area.

The volume is not an easy read, some diagrams and formulas taking some time to digest, even for specialists. This is because the book encompasses a very wide range of fields, from formulas taken from the field physics to economic calculations.

For energy professionals, I commend the book, as a very comprehensive summary of energy regulation, theories and basics of the power system. It refreshes knowledge and fills some gaps, in a balanced way.

Intelligent Research Design – Bob Hancké

The single-most relevant piece of advice, though, is to think carefully who you are writing for. Many, possibly most, research students write just for their supervisor. That is a big mistake: yes, you need to convince him or her of the important of what you are doing, but they are not the ultimate yardstick – and it’s too bad for them if they don’t know that. you should really have a broader, mostly sympathetic, audience in mind when you write, and should probably also diversify your imaginary audience a bit.

Although a book and not an article, I add this post in the Energy section, because it is more related to studies than reading.

Intelligent Research Design is a book offering advice for doctoral researchers at the beginning of their research. While short, the material is condensed and it takes a while to digest. Bob Hancké offers a guide to construct a thesis, from the research question to research design, methodology and presentation.

Learning to construct science

The writing is easy to follow, although the material covered is difficult. It teaches the reader how science is created, the benchmarks of an academic paper and the questions we should ask when reading an article, revealing the potential gaps.

Bob Hancké  is Reader in European Political Economy at the London School of Economics and Political Science and he draws for his decades of teaching experience and grading to show how a good academic paper should look like.

I enjoyed reading the book and I could easily see the points that Hancké wanted to make. I would have liked to recommend the book to my younger me, writing the Masters dissertation.

Sources of electricity – solar

Solar energy is a plentiful energy source, radiance energy coming from sun is at the order of 85,000 to 120,000 TW, while current world energy consumption is around 18 TW (IEA, Key Energy Statistics, 2014; Coimbra, Photovoltaic and Photothermal Energy Production: Future of Energy, 2014).

For electricity, solar energy technologies are broadly divided into photovoltaic cells (direct PVs) (direct conversion to electricity: photons to electrons); solar thermal power (using heat, also known as concentrated solar power) and other technologies (solar Stirling engines etc.).

Conventional PV cells have a very low efficiency, only 20%, but multi-junction cells, which absorb photons from different parts of the solar spectrum have efficiencies around 40% (however, they are 100 times more expensive than conventional PV cells).

Solar thermal power has an intermediary step, where solar energy is transformed first into thermal energy than into electrical energy. Mirrors can heat either a central liquid transforming it into steam or a working fluid, usually a high-temperature oil, in small tubes.

The biggest problem with solar energy is its variation, season to season, day to day, morning to evening. Daily variations can be somewhat balanced because daily electricity consumption roughly coincides with higher solar radiance, however storage is a must for long term development of the technology (Coimbra, Photovoltaic and Photothermal Energy Production: Future of Energy, 2014).

Sources of electricity – wind

Wind energy tapes the Earth’s winds to create electricity through wind turbines. Wind turbines can be HAWTs (Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines), widely used, or VAWTs (Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines). VAWTs are designed to be used mainly within urban areas. The turbines can be deployed onshore (on land), producing cheaper electricity or offshore (near cost), producing more reliable electricity.

A wind turbine uses the inflow of wind to activate the blades and the rotor. They spin the main shaft and gearbox, which spin the generator, producing electricity. Blades work basically like a reversed airplane wing.

The design of a wing facilitates lift, while the wind turbine blade facilitates push, with the most important part (and most expensive materials) at the top of the blade, because most of the aerodynamic loading is created there. The blade is made of fibreglass (cheaper than aluminium, with similar structural resistance).

The rotor assembly is the main focus now for improving the turbine (Bazilevs, Wind Turbines: Future of Energy, 2014).

Sources of electricity – oil

Oil or petroleum was once a key player in the electricity sector, but now it is used only marginally, usually as back-up reserve in diesel generators for major consumers, such as factories, hospitals, airports or as an electricity source in islands (for example in Greece).

Oil lost its share because of price, it is far more expensive to burn oil than burning coal or gas.

Merits of oil include high energy density, easy to transport and very stable composition, remaining liquid in most climatic conditions. Drawbacks of oil are price are environmental concerns (Webber, 2014).

Sources of electricity – biofuels

Biofuels are mostly used to replace oil as fuel in internal combustion engines, such as corn and cellulosic ethanol, jatropha, cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae. However, some are used to create electricity, mainly from biomass (Mayfield, 2015).

Biomass uses mainly waste biomass gasification to produce electricity. Waste biomass could be poplar trees or tall grasses, but also agricultural waste (almond shells, corn stover), forest clearings and municipal solid waste. All this is cellulosic biomass, which has strong molecular connections, therefore strong forces need to be used to extract energy, such as heat, steam or acid.

The most used technique uses heating. In large vessels (called fluidized bed gasifiers) steam is pumped (because the reaction is endothermic, needs energy input, in the form of heat in this case) below the biomass (technically known as bed material) to heat it. Heated to 600-800 degrees Celsius it produces, among others, synthetic natural gas. At 400 degrees Celsius, biomass heating results in solids known as bio-coal, the process being known as torrefaction. Bio-coal has better storage qualities than waste biomass. Bio-coal and synthetic natural gas are later burn in conventional power plants to produce electricity (Herz, Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Fuel: Future of Energy, 2014).

Another biomass source is algae. Algae are grown in an open or closed (closed bioreactors can be flat-plate, tubular or column, each option having its specific advantages.) to environment bioreactors (also known as photobioreactors).

The biggest problem of algae is crop protection from pests, the reactors, particularly the open ones, can be very easily infested and destroyed within 48 hours. After the algae has grown in the pond, it is harvested, by either centrifuge, filter, flocullation (letting the organism settle) and dissolved air flotation, and used to produced heat, through direct combustion.

The main effort of the technology developers now is to improve Energy Return on Investment (EROI), basically to make it commercially sustainable (McBride, Production Processes for Biofuels from Algae: Future of Energy, 2014).

Sources of electricity – nuclear

Nuclear energy is based on heat released by atomic (uranium) fission reactions which proceed via a chain reaction. Various technologies compete in the sector, mainly divided into light water reactors (LWRs), more popular, and heavy water reactors (HWRs). The main difference between them is that LWRs need enriched uranium, while HWRs can use natural uranium.

The development is now at the third plus generation, focusing mainly on safety measures, such as simplified core design and natural convection-driven cooling in case of loss-of-coolant (LOCA) incident.

Simplifying, core design measures include: natural convention air design (uses air cooling), gravity drain water tank (moved water on top of reactor, so no need for pumps), water film evaporation, outside cooling air intake (another measure to use external atmospheric temperature for cooling) and steel containment vessel (better protection). Simplified core design is aimed to reduced complexity and consequently increase reliability.

The main problem for nuclear resides mainly in the economics of a project, needing high capex and having long rate-of-investment; spent fuel handling and storage; and nuclear proliferation (atomic bombs). Fusion can be a player in the future, mainly due to better safety measure (there cannot be a core melt-down) and shorter (10s-100s) lived activated reactor components (Tynan, The future of Nuclear Energy: Future of Energy, 2014)